Looking back, it’s now obvious that the Lalonde report did initiate a change in our fundamental understanding of the determinants of health – an understanding that is now beginning to flourish. By stressing the influence of non-medical factors on population health, the report made it possible for governments, academics, and foundations to endorse practices outside conventional medical care. Medical practitioners are equally aware that health care by itself cannot secure a population’s health. Following the Lalonde report, politicians, health merchants, and mass media moguls seized on the idea of healthy lifestyles. They tried to convince us that personal responsibility was the primary determinant of health. In the end, however, I am cautiously optimistic that it is not their voices that will prevail.